At Columbia University, Cattell developed a department of psychology that became world famous also promoting psychological science through advocacy and as a publisher of scientific journals and reference works Fancher, ; Sokal, Throughout the first half of the 20th century, psychology continued to grow and flourish in America. It was large enough to accommodate varying points of view on the nature of mind and behavior.
Gestalt psychology is a good example. The Gestalt movement began in Germany with the work of Max Wertheimer — Consider that a melody is an additional element beyond the collection of notes that comprise it. The Gestalt psychologists proposed that the mind often processes information simultaneously rather than sequentially. For instance, when you look at a photograph, you see a whole image, not just a collection of pixels of color. Using Gestalt principles, Wertheimer and his colleagues also explored the nature of learning and thinking.
Most of the German Gestalt psychologists were Jewish and were forced to flee the Nazi regime due to the threats posed on both academic and personal freedoms.
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In America, they were able to introduce a new audience to the Gestalt perspective, demonstrating how it could be applied to perception and learning Wertheimer, In many ways, the work of the Gestalt psychologists served as a precursor to the rise of cognitive psychology in America Benjamin, Behaviorism emerged early in the 20th century and became a major force in American psychology. Championed by psychologists such as John B. Watson — and B. Skinner — , behaviorism rejected any reference to mind and viewed overt and observable behavior as the proper subject matter of psychology.
Through the scientific study of behavior, it was hoped that laws of learning could be derived that would promote the prediction and control of behavior. Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov — influenced early behaviorism in America. His work on conditioned learning, popularly referred to as classical conditioning, provided support for the notion that learning and behavior were controlled by events in the environment and could be explained with no reference to mind or consciousness Fancher, For decades, behaviorism dominated American psychology.
By the s, psychologists began to recognize that behaviorism was unable to fully explain human behavior because it neglected mental processes. The turn toward a cognitive psychology was not new. In the s, British psychologist Frederic C. Bartlett — explored the idea of the constructive mind, recognizing that people use their past experiences to construct frameworks in which to understand new experiences.
Some of the major pioneers in American cognitive psychology include Jerome Bruner — , Roger Brown — , and George Miller — In the s, Bruner conducted pioneering studies on cognitive aspects of sensation and perception. Around the same time, the study of computer science was growing and was used as an analogy to explore and understand how the mind works. The work of Miller and others in the s and s has inspired tremendous interest in cognition and neuroscience, both of which dominate much of contemporary American psychology.
In America, there has always been an interest in the application of psychology to everyday life. Mental testing is an important example.
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Modern intelligence tests were developed by the French psychologist Alfred Binet — His goal was to develop a test that would identify schoolchildren in need of educational support. His test, which included tasks of reasoning and problem solving, was introduced in the United States by Henry Goddard — and later standardized by Lewis Terman — at Stanford University.
The assessment and meaning of intelligence has fueled debates in American psychology and society for nearly years. Much of this is captured in the nature-nurture debate that raises questions about the relative contributions of heredity and environment in determining intelligence Fancher, Applied psychology was not limited to mental testing.
What psychologists were learning in their laboratories was applied in many settings including the military, business, industry, and education. The early 20th century was witness to rapid advances in applied psychology. Hugo Munsterberg — of Harvard University made contributions to such areas as employee selection, eyewitness testimony, and psychotherapy. Walter D. Scott — and Harry Hollingworth — produced original work on the psychology of advertising and marketing. Lillian Gilbreth — was a pioneer in industrial psychology and engineering psychology.
Working with her husband, Frank, they promoted the use of time and motion studies to improve efficiency in industry. Lillian also brought the efficiency movement to the home, designing kitchens and appliances including the pop-up trashcan and refrigerator door shelving. Their psychology of efficiency also found plenty of applications at home with their 12 children. The experience served as the inspiration for the movie Cheaper by the Dozen Benjamin, Clinical psychology was also an early application of experimental psychology in America.
Lightner Witmer — received his Ph. Witmer believed that because psychology dealt with the study of sensation and perception, it should be of value in treating children with learning and behavioral problems. As the roles of psychologists and the needs of the public continued to change, it was necessary for psychology to begin to define itself as a profession. Without standards for training and practice, anyone could use the title psychologist and offer services to the public. As early as , applied psychologists organized to create standards for education, training, and licensure.
The advent of WWII changed everything. The psychiatric casualties of war were staggering, and there were simply not enough mental health professionals to meet the need. Recognizing the shortage, the federal government urged the AAAP and APA to work together to meet the mental health needs of the nation. Through the provisions of National Mental Health Act of , funding was made available that allowed the APA, the Veterans Administration, and the Public Health Service to work together to develop training programs that would produce clinical psychologists. The meeting launched doctoral training in psychology and gave us the scientist-practitioner model of training.
Similar meetings also helped launch doctoral training programs in counseling and school psychology. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, alternatives to Boulder have been debated.
In , the Vail Conference on Professional Training in Psychology proposed the scholar-practitioner model and the Psy. Given that psychology deals with the human condition, it is not surprising that psychologists would involve themselves in social issues. For more than a century, psychology and psychologists have been agents of social action and change.
Using the methods and tools of science, psychologists have challenged assumptions, stereotypes, and stigma. Individually, there have been many psychologists whose efforts have promoted social change.
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Helen Thompson Woolley — and Leta S. Hollingworth — were pioneers in research on the psychology of sex differences. Among the first generation of African American psychologists, Mamie Phipps Clark — and her husband Kenneth Clark — studied the psychology of race and demonstrated the ways in which school segregation negatively impacted the self-esteem of African American children. Their research was influential in the Supreme Court ruling in the case of Brown v.
Board of Education, which ended school segregation Guthrie, In psychology, greater advocacy for issues impacting the African American community were advanced by the creation of the Association of Black Psychologists ABPsi in Growth and expansion have been a constant in American psychology. In the latter part of the 20th century, areas such as social, developmental, and personality psychology made major contributions to our understanding of what it means to be human.
Today neuroscience is enjoying tremendous interest and growth.
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As mentioned at the beginning of the module, it is a challenge to cover all the history of psychology in such a short space. Errors of omission and commission are likely in such a selective review.
Hate crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Many were based on testimony at the anti-gay violence hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives. The stories are brief and memorable and put a human face on the problem of violence against gays and lesbians. Perrotti, J.www.rusrostok.ru/includes
Discrimination Against LGBT Youth in US Schools | HRW
When the drama club is not enough: Lessons from the Safe Schools Program for gay and lesbian students. Boston, MA: Beacon. This book describes work done by two individuals heading Safe Schools Program for Gay and Lesbian students. Through narratives and personal stories they explain current issues faced by homosexual students and inspiring strategies to overcome these situations.
Some specific issues addressed include homosexuality at the elementary and middle school levels and coming out in school sports. The authors speak directly to anybody concerned with harassment of these individuals and would like to use gay and lesbian issues to start a transformation towards acceptance in their school systems.